By Bernard L. Cohen (auth.)
I used to be now not invited to put in writing a foreword for this e-book. Dr. Cohen, figuring out my busy agenda, might have thought of this type of request to be an imposition. I volunteered to take action partially to recognize my gratitude to him for having been a continuing resource of reference fabrics as i've got became my awareness more and more to informing either lay and medical audiences about the biologic results of low-level ionizing radiation. My fundamental explanation for vol unteering, besides the fact that, is to indicate to the significance of this kind of ebook for public schooling at a time while the media, in collaboration with numerous activist teams, have built one of the humans a virtually phobic worry of radiation at any point. I take factor with the phrases of one other Nobel laureate, George Wald, who states on a regular basis "Every dose is an overdose. '" This philosophy has re sulted in girls refusing mammography for the detection of breast melanoma even if this system is the main delicate for detection of such cancers within the early, curable degree, or even although, at this time, breast melanoma is the prime explanation for melanoma deaths between girls. It has led a Westchester County, long island legislator to country proudly within the ny instances that he v vi I FOREWORD had brought laws that may bar all radioactivity from the county's roads.
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It is evident that the A-bomb survivor data in the same dose region has much better statistical accuracy, showing no indication of the effect claimed by Mancuso. Other evidence for radiation-induced multiple myeloma was even more negative. There were only three cases more than would be normally expected among the Japanese A-bomb survivors 65 whereas well over a hundred would have been expected from the Mancuso results. There were no cases among the German patients treated with radium for ankylosing spondylitis,21 whereas the Mancuso conclusions would have predicted several hundred.
This effectively eliminates the risk of low-level radiation. There is evidence of this effect for the German ankylosing spondylitis patients treated with radium,61 for skin cancer in Japanese radiological workers,62 for the American radium-dial painters,63 for leukemia in mice, for skin and bone cancer in mice and rats, and for breast cancer in rats. 64 All of this evidence supports the majority position shown in Fig. 1, that the linear hypothesis does not underestimate, and very probably overestimates the risk of low-level radiation.
SCIENTIFIC BASIS FOR RISK ESTIMATES How do we arrive at the estimated cancer risk of low-level radiation, one chance in 8 million per millirem? We know a great deal about the cancer risk of high-level radiation, above 100,000 mrem, from various situations in which people were exposed to it and abnormally high cancer rates resulted. 13 The best known example is the carefully followed group of 80,000 Japanese A-bomb survivors, among whom 8500 people were exposed to doses in the range 100,000-600,000 mrem and suffered about 200 excess* cancer deaths up to 1974.
Before it’s Too Late: A Scientist’s Case for Nuclear Energy by Bernard L. Cohen (auth.)