By Klaas van't Riet
According to a graduate direction in biochemical engineering, offers the elemental wisdom wanted for the effective layout of bioreactors and the correct rules and knowledge for sensible approach engineering, with an emphasis on enzyme reactors and aerated reactors for microorganisms. contains routines,
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Extra info for Basic Bioreactor Design
A crystalline solid melts when its temperature is raised sufficiently for the thermal agitation of its molecules or ions to overcome the restraints imposed by the crystal lattice. Usually, impurities weaken crystal structures, and hence lower the melting points of solids (or the freezing points of liquids). If an impure material is melted and cooled slowly (with the addition, if necessary, of a trace of solid material near the freezing point to avoid supercooling), the first crystals that form will usually contain less of the impurity, so that fractional solidification by partial freezing can be used as a purification process for solids with melting points lying in a convenient temperature range (or for more readily frozen liquids).
The method is likely to be useful in cases where fractional distillation is not practicable, either because of Common Physical Techniques in Purification 17 unfavourable vapour pressures or ease of decomposition, or where super-pure materials are required. It has been used for the latter purpose for purifying anthracene, benzoic acid, chrysene, morphine, 1,8-naphthyridineand pyrene to name a few. Friedenberg et al. Wilcox (Eds), Fractional Solidijcation, Vol I, M Dekker Inc. 1 SUBLIMATION Sublimation differs from ordinary distillation because the vapour condenses to a solid instead of a liquid.
Filtration removes particulate impurities rapidly from liquids and is also used to collect insoluble or crystalline solids which separate or crystallise from solution. The usual technique is to pass the solution, cold or hot, through a fluted filter paper in a conical glass funnel. If a solution is hot and needs to be filtered rapidly a Buchner funnel and flask are used and filtration is performed under a slight vacuum (water pump), the filter medium being a circular cellulose filter paper wet with solvent.
Basic Bioreactor Design by Klaas van't Riet