By Robert J. Brulle
During this publication Robert Brulle attracts on a huge variety of empirical and theoretical study to enquire the effectiveness of U.S. environmental teams. Brulle exhibits how serious Theory--in specific the paintings of J?rgen Habermas--can extend our knowing of the social explanations of environmental degradation and the political activities essential to take care of it. He then develops either a realistic and a ethical argument for broad-based democratization of society as a prerequisite to the fulfillment of ecological sustainability.From the views of body research, source mobilization, and old sociology, utilizing info on a couple of hundred environmental teams, Brulle examines the middle ideals, constructions, investment, and political practices of a wide selection of environmental companies. He identifies the social tactics that foster the advance of a democratic environmental circulate and people who prevent it. He concludes with feedback for the way environmental teams could make their organizational practices extra democratic and politically potent.
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Additional resources for Agency, Democracy, and Nature: The U.S. Environmental Movement from a Critical Theory Perspective
In 1992 the National Research Council study Global Environmental Change (Stern, Young, and Druckman 1992) provided a major review of the human factors in environmental degradation. The NRC study first establishes a clear distinction between the driving forces and the proximate causes of environmental degradation. The proximate causes are the specific sources of the degradation: urban sprawl, automobile exhaust, greenhousegas emissions, and so forth. Most analyses of environmental degradation start with proximate causes, and thus these analyses neglect the social and human causes.
The legal code contains the legitimate and reciprocally binding behavioral expectations within which social institutions operate. The legitimacy of binding laws is due to their origination as the outcome of a discursive process through which citizens engage in self-determination Communicative Action and the Social Order 31 through open and rational discourse. This requires that citizens always be able to understand themselves as authors of the laws to which they are subject. Thus, communicative ethics takes the shape of a “self organizing legal community” (Habermas 1996: 326).
Strategic actions that aim to bring about a given end in the world were institutionalized in the market and the administrative state. Normative actions that aim to realize a certain ethic were institutionalized in representative constitutional government and positive law. Aesthetic actions that seek to present authentic expressions of the self were institutionalized in art. However, this development was not uniform. The market expanded and became the dominant social institution, over both legal constitutional democracy and aesthetic institutions.
Agency, Democracy, and Nature: The U.S. Environmental Movement from a Critical Theory Perspective by Robert J. Brulle