Advanced Metallization for Future Ulsi: Symposium Held April - download pdf or read online

By K. N. Tu, James W. Mayer, J. M. Poate, Lih J. Chen

ISBN-10: 1558993304

ISBN-13: 9781558993303

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Additional info for Advanced Metallization for Future Ulsi: Symposium Held April 8-11, 1996, San Francisco, California, U.S.A.

Sample text

Thus our thoughts about ideas, financial flows, and development need to be tailored to country circumstances. In some countries, contributing ideas that catalyze domestic reforms will be the predominant contribution of outside assistance, while in other countries, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa, an increase in financial flows will also be crucial. New ideas can be more credible, and more effectively implemented, if they are accompanied by finance. From a credibility standpoint, a donor’s willingness to commit its money and reputation to an idea can signal its belief in a new idea and its willingness to help make that idea work, whether this involves establishing a public works program or implementing a macroeconomic stabilization plan.

The Bank’s analysis of the potential role of development assistance for these countries has, so far, pointed in the following directions. Of the two or three dozen countries with the poorest institutions and policies, over the last two decades only a few have made major improvements in the environment for growth and poverty reduction. Ethiopia, Mozambique, and Uganda are unusual among these countries in having achieved significant progress. Others have seen few advances, and the performance of the Bank lending portfolio in this group has been poor: projects have failed at double the rate for other countries.

More recently, it has launched systematic programs to develop surveys of key factors in the processes driving development. In particular, these involve investment climate surveys of firms aimed at understanding where the major constraints to growth are and surveys of the processes shaping basic services, which assess the quantity and quality of services actually available and delivered. These process indicators complement the household surveys by providing insight into the processes that generate poverty reduction.

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Advanced Metallization for Future Ulsi: Symposium Held April 8-11, 1996, San Francisco, California, U.S.A. by K. N. Tu, James W. Mayer, J. M. Poate, Lih J. Chen


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