By R. Franceys
Offers certain sensible and technical suggestion meant to steer the choice, layout, building, and upkeep of on-site amenities for the removing of human excreta. Addressed to engineers, sanitarians, scientific officials, and venture planners, the ebook concentrates on technical recommendations compatible for homeowners development their very own latrines, no matter if in small groups, rural components, or disadvantaged city settlements. information variety from line drawings illustrating gains of layout and development, via an inventory of explanation why greater sanitation may perhaps elicit destructive responses from clients, to directions for calculating the interior dimensions of a septic tank.
The booklet positive factors 11 chapters in 3 components. Chapters within the first half introduce the principles of sanitary perform, describe the hyperlinks among excreta and affliction, and clarify the varied social and cultural elements that needs to be thought of on the making plans part. Chapters within the moment and such a lot large half supply an in depth technical advisor to the layout, development, operation and upkeep of all of the major strategies for on-site sanitation. Chapters describe how the different sorts of latrine paintings, talk about their relative advantages, and set out unique plans for the development of latrines and their parts. the ultimate half beneficial properties 3 chapters at the making plans and improvement of on-site sanitation initiatives, underscoring the necessity for a radical research of cultural in addition to layout positive factors.
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Additional resources for A Guide to the Development of On-Site Sanitation
Mound latrine Borehole latrines Borehole latrines have an augered hole instead of a dug pit and may be sunk to a depth of 10 m or more, although a depth of 4-6 m is usual. Augered holes, 300-500 mm in diameter, may be dug quickly by hand or machine in areas where the soil is firm, stable and free from rocks or large stones. While a small diameter is easier to bore, the life of the pit is very short. For example a 300-mm hole 5 m deep will serve a family of five people for about two years. The small diameter of the hole increases the likelihood of blockage, and the depth of the augered hole increases the danger of groundwater contamination.
1974) Malaysia (rural) 477 Balasegaram & Burkitt (1976) Kenya 520 Cranston & Burkitt (1975) Decomposition of faeces and urine As soon as excrete are deposited they start to decompose, eventually becoming a stable material with no unpleasant smell and containing valuable plant nutrients. During decomposition the following processes take place. • Complex organic compounds, such as proteins and urea, are broken down into simpler and more stable forms. • Gases such as ammonia, methane, carbon dioxide and nitrogen are produced and released into the atmosphere.
While a small diameter is easier to bore, the life of the pit is very short. For example a 300-mm hole 5 m deep will serve a family of five people for about two years. The small diameter of the hole increases the likelihood of blockage, and the depth of the augered hole increases the danger of groundwater contamination. Even if the hole does not become blocked, the sides of the hole become soiled near the top, making fly infestation probable. However, borehole latrines are convenient for emergency or short term use, because they can be prepared rapidly in great numbers, and light portable slabs may be used.
A Guide to the Development of On-Site Sanitation by R. Franceys