By Robert Buckley
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Additional resources for 1998 Annual Review of Development Effectiveness
1). Except in Thailand, government budgets were balanced or moving into surplus when the crisis hit. Inflation was contained, interest rates were going down, and recorded unemployment was low. Taking into account foreign direct investment, current account deficits were not excessive. Weaknesses in economic management helped trigger the crisis. In all cases the capital account was the main vulnerability. Imbalances between short-term debt and official reservescombined with premature financial liberalization and weak financial discipline in domestic banking systemscreated situations vulnerable to speculative pressures Many fundamentals were sound in crisis-affected countries.
Institutional weaknesses With the crisis having lasted more than a year, one fact has become evident: the costs of unregulated movements of private capital must be balanced against the risks. Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand received net private inflows worth almost 7 percent of their combined GDP in 1995-96. 3 Changing risk perceptions by commercial banks, and particularly portfolio investors (rather than foreign direct investors), explain the reversal.
Norma Namisato, Silvana Valle, Geri Wise, Brigitte Wittel, and Barbara Yale provided administrative assistance. This study was produced in the Partnerships and Knowledge Group (OEDPK) by the Dissemination and Outreach Unit. The unit is directed by Elizabeth Campbell-Pagé, Task Manager, and includes Caroline McEuen and Leo Demesmaker (editors), Kathy Strauss and Lunn Lestina (desktop design and layout), and Juicy Qureishi-Huq (administrative assistance). DIRECTOR-GENERAL, OPERATIONS EVALUATION: ROBERT PICCIOTTO DIRECTOR, OPERATIONS EVALUATION DEPARTMENT: ELIZABETH MCALLISTER MANAGER, CORPORATE EVALUATIONS AND METHODS: WENDY JARVIE TASK MANAGER: ROBERT BUCKLEY Page vii Foreword Prefacio Préface Foreword ENGLISHPrefacio ESPANOLPréface FRANCAISThe ongoing financial crisis has raised questions about the underpinnings of development assistance and the role of international financial institutions.
1998 Annual Review of Development Effectiveness by Robert Buckley